In response to the shortcomings of the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade of the 1980s, a training package was designed in 1991 by a group of sector experts from the Operation and Maintenance Working Group of the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council. A draft version was developed by the IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre in the Netherlands and tested in 1992 in Namibia. The recommendations resulting from this field-test were then incorporated in the English
version, which was subsequently translated into French and Portuguese. The revised version has since been implemented in various countries in Africa and Asia. In 1998 the World Health Organization (WHO) and the IRC decided to update the package. The present version is therefore the result of seven years of work and experience worldwide. It incorporates recent developments and the latest findings and methodologies, which will help to improve the management of operation and maintenance (O&M) of rural water supply and sanitation services in developing countries.
The training manual is available in English, and can be downloaded below.